English II Fundamentals

English II Fundamentals continues to build on the sequential development and integration of communication skills in four major areas: reading, writing, speaking, and listening. It focuses on deepening and furthering students' understanding in the following ways:

  • Reading reinforces reading comprehension skills by teaching students how to comprehend and appreciate poetry, drama, and fiction; shows students how to analyze, evaluate, and interpret a text; reinforces awareness of the elements and structure of narrative prose; guides students through readings of drama, a novel, and selections of well-known poetry and short stories.
  • Writing develops studentsÕ understanding of complex sentence and paragraph structures, providing hands-on experience with connectives, transitions, phrases, and clauses; teaches language history and etymology to help students build on knowledge of grammar and word structures; expands on studentsÕ vocabulary skills; gives students the opportunity to develop their abilities in writing a set of instructions, a literary critique, a poem, a short story, and a speech.
  • Speaking offers students experience in delivering a speech; teaches skills that enable students to become effective speakers and communicators, weaving the skills throughout the course.
  • Listening teaches effective listening comprehension skills, integrating these throughout the lessons.
  • Special Topics incorporates research skills, including internet, library, and reference material use.

Curriculum Contents

Reading Comprehension Skills

  • Elements of Narrative Prose
  • Reading Fiction
  • Reading Poetry
  • Reading Skills: Analysis, Evaluation, and Interpretation
  • Strategies for Comprehension: Making Inferences and Identifying Main Ideas


  • Paragraph Elements and Structure: Connectives and Transitions
  • Writing Expository Prose: Process
  • Writing Instructions
  • Writing a Literary Critique
  • Writing a Poem
  • Writing a Poetry Analysis
  • Writing a Short Story
  • Writing a Speech

Grammar and Usage

  • Development of English: Grammar, Spelling, Pronunciation, and Vocabulary
  • Nouns: Noun Plurals
  • Pronouns: Types, Gender, Case, and Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement
  • Sentence Structure: Clauses, Phrases, and Compound/Complex Sentences

Literature Studies

  • Drama: Structure and Elements
  • Fiction: Genre/Type, Structure, Elements, and Modes
  • History of Drama: Greek/Roman Plays and Medieval Drama
  • History of Novels: Oral Tradition, Novel Prototypes, and Early Novels
  • Poetry: Genre/Type, Structure, Elements, and Literary Devices

Speaking and Listening

  • Listening Skills: Elements, Common Errors, and Strategies
  • Speaking Skills: Elements, Purpose, Organization, and Delivery


  • Nouns: Plural and Affixes

Special Topics

  • Origin/Development of Language
  • Research Skills: Internet, Library and Reference Materials
  • Study Skills: Note Taking
  • Job-Seeking Skills: ResumŽs and Cover Letters

Literature List

Following are literary works students will encounter in English II.

  • Drama
    • Shaw, George Bernard.
      • Pygmalion
  • Fiction
    • Eliot, George.
      • Silas Marner
    • de Maupassant, Guy.
      • ÒThe NecklaceÓ
    • Stockton, Frank.
      • ÒThe Lady, or the Tiger?Ó
    • Twain, Mark.
      • ÒThe Celebrated Frog of Calaveras CountyÓ
  • Poetry
    • Keats, John.
      • "To My Brother George"
    • Housman, A.E.
      • "The Loveliest of Trees"
      • "Is My Team Ploughing?"
    • Tennyson, Alfred.
      • "The Eagle"
    • Wylie, Elinor.
      • ÒVelvet ShoesÓ
    • Shelley, Percy.
      • ÒOzymandiasÓ
    • Burns, Robert.
      • "A Red, Red Rose"
    • Blake, William.
      • "The Sick Rose," ÒThe TygerÓ

State: National, California, Oklahoma, Texas, Utah
Grade Level: 9, 10, 11, 12
Category: English Language Arts
Course Length: Year